The uppers of shoes get folded over the toe portion every time a step is taken. These repeated folding cause the finished grains to start cracking, resulting in loss of water resistance. To ensure that the leather uppers retain their water resistance for a reasonable period of use, the action of such folding on them is simulated by subjecting test specimens taken from the leather to a water penetration test using a electrometer.
- IUP/10: Official Methods of International Union of Leather Chemists societies.
- IS 5914: 1970: Methods of Physical Tesitng of Leather.
- LP 20: Dynamic Water Proofness Test for Upper Leather
- IS 15298 (Part 2): 2011 : Water Penetration & Water Absorption tester
- ISO: 8782 Ã¢â¬â 1 : 1998
Plot No.54, Rajinder Nagar Industrial Area, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, 201007, India